Other posts related to cisco

Cisco LACP config for Aruba AP

 | 8 Jul 2015 17:30

Aruba LogoDon’t we all love it when we find that a standard requirement states one thing and what to date is implemented elsewhere doesn’t comply? Dual active uplinks for a premium office standard is one of those requirements I found. Now I haven’t seen the standard Cisco wireless deployment for premium sites, but in light of vendor ‘diversity’ Aruba is deployed instead of Cisco.

Motivation aside, the dual uplink raises an interesting question for lightweight access points (LWAPs). Aruba (by default) GRE tunnels all client traffic to the wireless LAN controller (WLC) for processing, filtering and forwarding there, like Cisco and common in corporate environments. The alternatives are split tunneling or no tunneling, which normally comes at the cost of losing corporate controls. The QoS trade-off and headaches of tunneling WLAN traffic to WLCs is food for another post entirely.

LACP

Using AP225 APs, I found I had LACP at my disposal. Cheaper models (< AP220) don’t do LACP and only have STP for redundancy. Some of my first concerns:

  • Standard Cisco LACP is mostly configured unconditional, which means the ports don’t come up if LACP isn’t detected on the link. How is an AP meant to get its profile from a WLC if it can’t get there. Remember I don’t want to reconfigure the switch ports after an AP has connected and obtained its profile (configuration) from the WLC.
  • Aruba documentation and forums (Airheads) didn’t list much configuration about Cisco switch port configuration. What I did find was that LACP is supported and needs switch configuration for it to work.
  • A single GRE tunnel using 2 etherchannel members?! LACP uses an IP hash table to select which member link to forward packets on. An AP only has a single IP address and without LACP the WLC also only has a single IP address for termination of LWAP GRE tunnels. Surely all GRE tunnels would only use a single LACP bundle-member, restricting maximum throughput to 1 Gbps. If so, what’s the point?

Reading up I found the following helpful information:

  • Aruba solves the LACP IP hash table problem by using a second WLC IP address to terminate a second GRE tunnel. This second tunnel uses the 2nd member-link. Each GRE tunnel serves a radio, 2.4GHz and 5GHz, this does not enable more than 1 Gbps for 5GHz but at least 2.4GHz traffic won’t eat into the uplink speed available to 5GHz traffic. The Aruba config for LACP centres around “AP LACP GRE striping IP” (see Google for more info).
  • “no port-channel standalone-disable”, this port-channel configuration gem permits link members to come up as individual links. This allows a LWAP to connect to the network, get an IP via DHCP, find the WLC and pull its configuration. Once provisioned by the WLC LACP kicks in.

Caveats

Beware of the LACP hash algorithm, Cisco switch default is src-mac. In an edge-routed design the source-mac will be the mac of the switch SVI towards the WLC. The Switch terminating the LWAPs is the same as the one terminating the WLC and the WLC also uses LACP to connect to the LAN. For my deployment the solution was src-ip as the GRE sessions towards the LWAPs have a distinct WLC IP address (must be odd/even). Traffic destined for the WLC is also src-ip based, which is good as the load-balancing will then be based on the targets of the clients whether internet or LAN based it works as long as corporate clients don’t all hit the same target at the same time. I think is most situations the resulting total bandwidth restriction of a single LAN source towards wireless clients at 1 Gbps is beneficial to the fair sharing of bandwidth between LAN based services.

The AP225 only pulls PoE over a single link. If the link providing PoE goes down it will reboot and come up one the remaining link.

Though the dual links provide extra bandwidth, if the your NOC doesn’t monitor these links either via WLC management or switch trap/port monitoring, a single link failure won’t be noticed. I think this is no different to the issue of APs losing their physical link and continuing in mesh connectivity, which is great as a last resort but not when the situation isn’t resolved before things get really bad.

Cisco config

This is the LWAP switch port config that worked for me:

WLAN-SW01(config)#int range g1/0/1,g2/0/1
 description WLAN-AP01
 switchport access vlan 4
 switchport mode access
 channel-group 1 mode active
 !
WLAN-SW01(config)#int po1
 description WLAN-AP01
 switchport access vlan 4
 switchport mode access
 no port-channel standalone-disable
 !
 exit
WLAN-SW01#sh eth 1 sum
Flags: D - down P - bundled in port-channel
       I - stand-alone s - suspended
       H - Hot-standby (LACP only)
       R - Layer3 S - Layer2
       U - in use f - failed to allocate aggregator

       M - not in use, minimum links not met
       u - unsuitable for bundling
       w - waiting to be aggregated
       d - default port
...
Group  Port-channel  Protocol    Ports
------+-------------+-----------+-----------------------------------------------
1      Po1(SU)         LACP      Gi1/0/1(P) Gi2/0/1(P)

When the LWAP hasn’t fetched it’s configuration the Flags show either (D) for down or (I) when the port is up but LACP is inactive. As long as LACP is inactive the APs MAC address will hop between the two ports and a MAC flap warning is reported by the switch.

Jul  8 2015 08:33:59.259 UTC: %SW_MATM-4-MACFLAP_NOTIF: Host 94b4.0f50.47f0 in vlan 4 is flapping between port Gi2/0/1 and port Gi1/0/1

Another error I’ve seen is about PoE. What happens is that both member ports offer PoE but the AP only signals acceptance on a single port. The switch doesn’t seem to understand the lack of response, calls the AP rude, turns off PoE on that port and logs the ‘error’.

Jul 8 2015 17:08:39.030 UTC: %ILPOWER-7-DETECT: Interface Gi1/0/2: Power Device detected: IEEE PD
Jul 8 2015 17:08:41.202 UTC: %ILPOWER-5-IEEE_DISCONNECT: Interface Gi2/0/2: PD removed
Jul 8 2015 17:08:41.203 UTC: %ILPOWER-3-CONTROLLER_PORT_ERR: Controller port error, Interface Gi2/0/2: Power given, but Power Controller does not report Power Good
Jul 8 2015 17:08:41.885 UTC: %ILPOWER-7-DETECT: Interface Gi2/0/2: Power Device detected: IEEE PD
Jul 8 2015 17:08:42.995 UTC: %ILPOWER-5-POWER_GRANTED: Interface Gi2/0/2: Power granted
Jul 8 2015 17:08:50.035 UTC: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface GigabitEthernet2/0/2, changed state to up
Jul 8 2015 17:08:50.187 UTC: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface GigabitEthernet1/0/2, changed state to up
Jul 8 2015 17:08:55.025 UTC: %ILPOWER-5-IEEE_DISCONNECT: Interface Gi1/0/2: PD removed

WLAN-SW01#sh power inline
Module Available Used Remaining
 (Watts) (Watts) (Watts)
------ --------- -------- ---------
1 1110.0 200.2 909.8
Interface Admin  Oper       Power   Device              Class Max
                            (Watts)
--------- ------ ---------- ------- ------------------- ----- ----
Gi1/0/1   auto   on         15.4    Ieee PD             4     30.0
Gi2/0/1   auto   off        0.0     n/a                 n/a   30.0

Check LACP from the WLC

Some great LACP related WLC CLI tools I found on Airheads:

Check if GRE striping IP has been set: “show ap system-profile ”

(WLAN-WLC01) #show ap system-profile LACP

AP system profile "LACP"
------------------------
Parameter Value
--------- -----
RF Band g
RF Band for AM mode scanning all
...
LMS IP 10.20.30.10
Backup LMS IP N/A
LMS IPv6 N/A
Backup LMS IPv6 N/A
LMS Preemption Disabled
LMS Hold-down Period 600 sec
LMS ping interval 20
GRE Striping IP 10.20.30.11

Check the if an APs LACP has come up: “show ap debug lacp ap-name ”

(WLAN-WLC01) #show ap debug lacp ap-name WLAN-AP01

AP LACP Status
--------------
Link Status  LACP Rate  Num Ports  Actor Key  Partner Key  Partner MAC
-----------  ---------  ---------  ---------  -----------  -----------
Up           slow       2          17         1            88:90:8d:d9:b8:00
Slave Interface Status
----------------------
Slave I/f Name  Permanent MAC Addr  Link Status  Member of LAG  Link Fail Count
--------------  ------------------  -----------  -------------  ---------------
eth0            94:b4:0f:c2:83:b2   Up           Yes            0
eth1            94:b4:0f:c2:83:b3   Up           Yes            0
...

Check if GRE tunnels are being created to both the switch IP address and the GRE stripping IP address configured in the AP system profile: “show datapath session | include ”

(WLAN-WLC01) #show datapath session | include "30.29   10.20.30.1"
...
10.20.30.29   10.20.30.10   17   4500  4500   0/0  0    0   0   pc1         119  70         71872      FC           
10.20.30.29   10.20.30.11   47   0     0      0/0  0    0   1   pc1         c    0          0          FC           
...

There you have it, LACP between an Aruba AP and a Cisco switch. Kudos to Abi’s over at Airheads for this article about LACP on the Aruba AP225 and AirOS 6.3. I was working on 6.4, ymmv with different versions.

Temporary London CCIE LABs

 | 25 Jun 2014 15:23

Just received an email about Cisco’s mobile CCIE LAB coming to London:

Mobile CCIE Lab Available in London, United Kingdom, from October 6 to October 14, 2014

To address the urgent need for certified IT professionals, and to offer more convenient testing, Cisco has developed the Mobile CCIE Lab for qualified candidates who are ready to take their CCIE Routing and Switching exam or CCIE Security exam.

We encourage you to take advantage of the mobile lab scheduled in London, United Kingdom, from October 6 to October 14, 2014. The CCIE mobile testing lab will allow qualified candidates to more easily and quickly take the exam, reducing the waiting time, effort, and costs accrued by having to travel to take the exam. The eight-hour lab exam tests your ability to configure actual equipment and get the network running in a timed-test situation. There will be 42 seats available for the CCIE Routing and Switching exam and 7 seats available for the CCIE Security exam.

Apart from the Cisco Certified Architect (CCAr) certification, the Cisco CCIE certifications are the highest level of achievement for network professionals. Less than 3 percent of all Cisco certified professionals earn their CCIE certification.

Click here to register for the CCIE Routing and Switching exam or CCIE Security exam in London.

For information on registering for a Mobile CCIE Lab event or for additional information about the Mobile CCIE Lab program, visit the Cisco Learning Network.

To CCIE or not to CCIE?

 | 14 Jun 2012 15:30

This one has been coming for a while… Last time I went for my CCIE was Q3 2007 and it’s been pretty quiet here since.

In the mean time I’ve moved country, changed jobs and moved again, though not as far. So how is my CCIE doing? Well to be honest, it’s not. You see, I came from a sponsored certification track -which incidentally I forged with my employer at the time- and thus had to sort out a transfer sum from my new employer. No problem for the Dutch employment market, at least at the time. But here in the UK I had no such luck, suffice to say that financially it was not a good idea to move country. My new employer expressed that they would be happy to support attaining CCIE status. Little did I know that we had completely different concepts of ‘support’.

Loving a new challenge I quickly settled into my new position, only to find two years had gone before the question of attaining CCIE popped up again. No wonder really when you have a 100% billable target and there’s plenty of over time involved in the projects at hand. Then when things settled down and I moved to another customer I only found myself further and further away from (CCIE related) technology.

Yes, I still design and do have a consulting role but I’m in no way challenged and kept on my toes protocol wise. It took a few technical interviews to fully realise the impact of this. Which brought me to this point: Either, I work and retrain myself towards CCIE in my own time, hope my employer will pay for the lab and favour me with a mere week off for full-time study. Or do I let go of the desire to attain CCIE and trust that there will be employers out there who are smart enough not to be blind sided by the highly praised numbers of my peers.

My choice has been to no longer pursue CCIE. I can’t ask my family for a long and hefty sacrifice once again, we’ve been there done that. I’m now one kid and two cancers (promisestoday.com /@maizymoo tweet) further and value my own time more than my career, if this means UK employers don’t like me any more than so be it. I know what I’m capable of, just wish I was better at convincing prospective employers…

[Above edited, below added - Jan 27th 2014]

Sad thing is that the CCIE we find ourselves hiring. often do not have the consultancy skills needed to satisfy our customer’s needs. To the HR managers out there: Hiring a CCIE does not mean, you get good communication skills, customer facing skills or even basic networking experience for that matter. Trust me I know, I’ve had to replace a number of (single, dual and a quad) CCIEs on various projects where things had gone so bad we were about to lose all future business.

Don’t get me wrong, I value certifications and see them as a good means for career progression. I do have issue though with the UK market putting so much pressure on individuals to develop themselves, alienating them completely from a corporate drive to improve through a shared responsibility. UK employer – employee relationships have become too one sided… For more on this see a recent article of mine.

Inter-AS MPLS and MTU

 | 2 Jun 2009 14:18

Type-2 interconnects are fun, but mtu issues are not. When faced with migrating subnets  from one MPLS cloud to another -different AS numbers you see- the three common inter-AS types were taken off the shelf and dusted off…

Show me more… »

Python rocks

 | 2 Mar 2009 11:21

Doing a network upgrade of 28 sites, 60 services and roughly 160 old devices to just 60 devices. Python has become my friend for reading configs, creating csv files and verification. Will be posting my scripts later. I’m sure there are clever people out there who can tell me where I went wrong or what I could be doing better. However time fails me to post them right now.

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